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翻譯頻道 > 熱點翻譯
關于中美經貿磋商的中方立場(雙語全文)
來源:21英語網    日期: 2019-06-03

國務院新聞辦公室2日發表《關于中美經貿磋商的中方立場》白皮書。雙語全文如下

關于中美經貿磋商的中方立場
China’s Position on the China-US Economic and Trade Consultations

(2019年6月)
中華人民共和國
國務院新聞辦公室
(June 2019)
The State Council Information Office of 
The People’s Republic of China

目錄
Contents

前言
Preface

一、美國挑起對華經貿摩擦損害兩國和全球利益
I. Economic and trade friction provoked by the US damages the interests of both countries and of the wider world

二、美國在中美經貿磋商中出爾反爾、不講誠信
II. The US has backtracked on its commitments in the China-US economic and trade consultations

三、中國始終堅持平等、互利、誠信的磋商立場
III. China is committed to credible consultations based on equality and mutual benefit

結束語
Conclusion

前言
Preface

中美經貿關系是兩國關系的“壓艙石”和“推進器”,事關兩國人民根本利益,事關世界繁榮與穩定。兩國建交以來,雙邊經貿關系持續發展,合作領域不斷拓寬,合作水平不斷提高,形成了高度互補、利益交融的互利共贏關系,不僅兩國受益,而且惠及全球。
The China-US commercial relationship serves as both the ballast and the propeller of the overall bilateral relationship. At stake are the fundamental interests of the two peoples, and the prosperity and stability of the world. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the US, bilateral trade and economic relations have come a long way, with expanding fields of cooperation at higher levels. A mutually beneficial and win-win relationship with strong complementarity and interlinked interests has been forged, benefiting not only the two countries but also the entire world.

由于發展階段、經濟制度不同,兩國在經貿合作中難免出現分歧和摩擦。在中美經貿關系發展歷程中,也曾多次出現波折、面臨困難局面。兩國本著理性、合作的態度,通過對話協商解決問題,化解了矛盾、縮小了分歧,雙邊經貿關系更趨成熟。
Given the differences in stage of development and economic system, it is inevitable that the two countries will experience differences and friction in their commercial cooperation. The history of China-US trade and economic relations has seen twists and turns and difficult situations. By adopting a rational and cooperative attitude, the two countries have managed to resolve previous conflicts, bridge differences, and render the bilateral commercial relationship more mature through dialogue and consultation.

2017年新一屆美國政府上任以來,以加征關稅等手段相威脅,頻頻挑起與主要貿易伙伴之間的經貿摩擦。2018年3月以來,針對美國政府單方面發起的中美經貿摩擦,中國不得不采取有力應對措施,堅決捍衛國家和人民利益。同時,中國始終堅持通過對話協商解決爭議的基本立場,與美國開展多輪經貿磋商,努力穩定雙邊經貿關系。中國的態度是一貫的、明確的。中美合則兩利,斗則俱傷,合作是雙方唯一正確的選擇。對于兩國經貿分歧和摩擦,中國愿意采取合作的方式加以解決,推動達成互利雙贏的協議。但合作是有原則的,磋商是有底線的,在重大原則問題上中國決不讓步。對于貿易戰,中國不愿打,不怕打,必要時不得不打,這個態度一直沒變。
Since it took office in 2017, the new US administration has threatened additional tariffs and other measures and provoked frequent economic and trade friction with its major trading partners. In response to the economic and trade friction unilaterally initiated by the US since March 2018, China has had to take forceful measures to defend the interests of the nation and its people. At the same time, committed to resolving disputes through dialogue and consultation, China has engaged in multiple rounds of economic and trade consultations with the US in an effort to stabilize the bilateral commercial relationship. China’s position has been consistent and clear – that cooperation serves the interests of the two countries, that conflict can only hurt both, and that cooperation is the only correct choice for both sides. Concerning their differences and frictions on the economic and trade front, China is willing to work together with the US to find solutions, and to reach a mutually beneficial and win-win agreement. However, cooperation has to be based on principles. There are bottom lines in consultations. China will not compromise on major issues of principle. China does not want a trade war, but it is not afraid of one and it will fight one if necessary. China’s position on this has never changed.

為全面介紹中美經貿磋商基本情況,闡明中國對中美經貿磋商的政策立場,中國政府特發布此白皮書。
To provide a comprehensive picture of the China-US economic and trade consultations, and present China’s policy position on these consultations, the Chinese government hereby issues this White Paper.

一、美國挑起對華經貿摩擦損害兩國和全球利益
I. Economic and trade friction provoked by the US damages the interests of both countries and of the wider world

現任美國政府奉行“美國優先”政策,對外采取一系列單邊主義和保護主義措施,動輒使用關稅“大棒”,將自身利益訴求強加于他國。美國啟用塵封多年的“201調查”“232調查”等手段,對各主要貿易伙伴頻頻出手,攪亂全球經貿格局。美國還將矛頭對準中國,于2017年8月啟動單邊色彩濃厚的“301調查”,無視中國多年來在加強知識產權保護、改善外資營商環境等方面的不懈努力和取得的巨大成績,對中國作出諸多不客觀的負面評價,采取加征關稅、限制投資等經貿限制措施,挑起中美經貿摩擦。
Trumpeting “America First”, the current US administration has adopted a series of unilateral and protectionist measures, regularly wielded tariffs as a “big stick” and coerced other countries into accepting its demands. The US has initiated frequent investigations under the long-unused Sections 201 and 232 against its main trading partners, causing disruption to the global economic and trade landscape. Specifically targeting China, in August 2017 it launched a unilateral investigation under Section 301. Turning a blind eye to China’s unremitting efforts and remarkable progress in protecting intellectual property and improving the business environment for foreign investors, the US issued a myriad of slanted and negative observations, and imposed additional tariffs and investment restrictions on China, provoking economic and trade friction between the two countries.


Box 1: China’s technological innovation is based on self-reliance. Accusing China of intellectual property theft and forced technology transfer is utterly unfounded.

China is an innovative and diligent nation. It has created a highly-sophisticated civilization and contributed significantly to human progress over the course of 5,000 years. Since the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949, and in particular since the beginning of reform and opening up in 1978, China’s scientific and technological undertakings have passed through a series of phases. They started from a difficult beginning, forged ahead in the course of reform, and have now achieved multiple breakthroughs featuring a variety of innovations. These achievements have won worldwide recognition. Historical records confirm that China’s achievements in scientific and technological innovation are not something we stole or forcibly took from others; they were earned through self-reliance and hard work. Accusing China of stealing intellectual property to support its own development is an unfounded fabrication.

China is fully committed to intellectual property protection. It has established a legal system for the protection of intellectual property that is consistent with prevailing international rules and adapted to China’s domestic conditions. China values the leading role of judicial measures in protecting intellectual property, and has achieved impressive results. The understanding of the importance of intellectual property among the general public and business community in China has increased, the value of royalties paid to foreign rights-holders has risen significantly, and the number of intellectual property applications and registrations has surged.

The effective impact of China’s intellectual property protection has won broad international recognition. Former WIPO Director General Arpad Bogsch spoke highly of China’s legal framework for intellectual property protection, noting that China’s achievements are “unmatched in the history of intellectual property protection”. The US Chamber of Commerce recognized that China is making concrete progress in creating an intellectual property environment appropriate to the 21st century. In its 2018 China Business Climate Survey Report, the American Chamber of Commerce in China noted that among the main challenges facing its member companies operating in China, concern over intellectual property dropped from 5th place in 2011 to 12th place in 2018. An article in The Diplomat predicted that China will become a leader in global intellectual property. Many of the concerns raised by foreign firms doing business in China have already been addressed through judicial reform and a strengthened enforcement mechanism.

Respecting the laws of the market economy, China has been actively improving the policy system for innovation, continuously increasing investment in research and development, accelerating the development of innovators, and strengthening international cooperation on technological innovation in an all-round way. In terms of some key innovation indices, China is already among the world’s leading players. As China continues to witness a series of major scientific and technological achievements, its industries are gravitating toward the middle and high end, and the country’s international influence is markedly increasing. In 2017, total R&D investment in China reached RMB1.76 trillion, ranking second in the world. The number of patent applications reached 1.382 million, ranking No. 1 in the world for the seventh consecutive year. The number of invention patents granted reached 327,000, up by 8.2 percent year-on-year. China ranks third in the world in terms of valid invention patents held.

China has always pursued international technical cooperation with mutual benefit and win-win as the basic value orientation. China’s economic development has benefited from international technology transfer and dissemination. International holders of technology have also reaped enormous benefits from this process. China encourages and respects voluntary technical cooperation between Chinese and foreign firms based on market principles. It strongly opposes forced technology transfer and takes resolute action against intellectual property infringement. Accusations against China of forced technology transfer are baseless and untenable.

美國無視中美經濟結構、發展階段特點和國際產業分工現實,堅持認為中國采取不公平、不對等的貿易政策,導致美國出現對華貿易逆差,在雙邊經貿交往中“吃了虧”,并對華采取單邊加征關稅措施。事實上,在經濟全球化時代,中美兩國經濟高度融合,共同構成完整的產業鏈,兩國經濟連骨帶筋、互利共贏,把貿易逆差當作“吃虧”是算錯了賬。美國對中國采取的貿易限制措施不利于中國,也不利于美國,更不利于全球。
Turning a blind eye to the nature of the economic structure and the stage of development in China and the US, as well as the reality of the international industrial division of labor, the US insists that China’s “unfair” and “non-reciprocal” trade policies have created a trade deficit in bilateral commercial exchanges that constitutes “being taken advantage of”, leading to unilateral imposition of additional tariffs on China. In fact, in today’s globalized world, the Chinese and American economies are highly integrated and together constitute an entire industrial chain. The two economies are bound in a union that is mutually beneficial and win-win in nature. Equating a trade deficit to being taken advantage of is an error. The restrictive measures the US has imposed on China are not good for China or the US, and still worse for the rest of the world.


Box 2: The Chinese and American economies are interlinked, and bilateral trade and investment are mutually beneficial

China and the US are each other’s largest trading partner and important source of investment. In 2018, bilateral trade in goods and services exceeded US$750 billion, and two-way direct investment approached US$160 billion. China-US commercial cooperation has brought substantial benefits to both countries and both peoples.

According to China Customs, the trade in goods between China and the US grew from less than US$2.5 billion in 1979 when the two countries forged diplomatic ties to US$633.5 billion in 2018, a 252-fold increase. In 2018, the US was China’s largest trading partner and export market, and the sixth largest source of imports. According to the US Department of Commerce, in 2018 China was the largest trading partner of the US, its third largest export market, and its largest source of imports. China is the key export market for US airplanes, soybeans, automobiles, integrated circuits and cotton. During the ten years from 2009 to 2018, China was one of the fastest growing export markets for American goods, with an annual average increase of 6.3 percent and an aggregate growth of 73.2 percent, higher than the average growth of 56.9 percent represented by other regions in the world.

Trade in services between China and the US is flourishing and highly complementary. The two countries have conducted extensive, in-depth, and mutually-beneficial cooperation in tourism, culture, and intellectual property. China is the largest destination for US tourists in the Asia-Pacific and the US is the largest overseas destination for Chinese students. According to Chinese figures, two-way trade in services rose from US$27.4 billion in 2006, the earliest year with available statistics, to US$125.3 billion in 2018, a 3.6-fold increase. In 2018, China’s services trade deficit with the US reached US$48.5 billion.

Over the past forty years, two-way investment between China and the US has grown from near zero to approximately US$160 billion, and this cooperation has proved fruitful. According to MOFCOM, by the end of 2018 accumulative Chinese business direct investment in the US exceeded US$73.17 billion. The rapid growth of Chinese business investment in the US has contributed to local economic growth, job creation, and tax revenues. According to MOFCOM, the paid-in investment by the US in China was US$85.19 billion by the end of 2018. In 2017, the total annual sales revenues of US-invested companies in China were US$700 billion, with profits exceeding US$50 billion.

Therefore, if trade in goods and services as well as two-way investment are taken into account, China-US trade and economic relations are mutually beneficial, rather than the US “being taken advantage of”.

(一)美國加征關稅措施損人不利己
(I) The tariff measures the US imposed harm others and are of no benefit to itself


美國政府對中國輸美商品加征關稅,阻礙雙邊貿易投資合作,影響兩國乃至全球市場信心和經濟平穩運行。美國的關稅措施導致中國對美出口額下滑,2019年1月至4月同比下降9.7%(注4),連續5個月下降。同時,由于中國不得不針對美國加稅采取加征關稅應對,美國對華出口連續8個月下降(注5)。中美經貿摩擦帶來的不確定性使兩國企業對開展投資合作持觀望態度,中國對美投資持續下滑,美國對華投資增速也明顯降低。據中國有關方面統計,2018年中國企業對美直接投資57.9億美元,同比下降10%(注6)。2018年美國實際對華投資金額26.9億美元(注7),增速從2017年的11%大幅回落至1.5%。由于中美經貿摩擦前景不明,世界貿易組織將2019年全球貿易增長速度由3.7%下調至2.6%(注8)。
The US administration has imposed additional tariffs on Chinese goods exported to the US, impeding two-way trade and investment cooperation and undermining market confidence and economic stability in the two countries and globally. The US tariff measures lead to a decrease in the volume of China’s export to the US, which fell by 9.7 percent year-on-year in the first four months of 2019, dropping for five months in a row. In addition, as China has to impose tariffs as a countermeasure to US tariff hikes, US exports to China have dropped for eight months in a row. The uncertainty brought by US-China economic and trade friction made companies in both countries more hesitant about investing. China’s investment in the US continues to fall and the growth rate of US investment in China has also slowed down. According to Chinese statistics, direct investment by Chinese companies in the US was US$5.79 billion in 2018, down by 10 percent year-on-year. In 2018, paid-in US investment in China was US$2.69 billion, up by only 1.5 percent year-on-year compared with an increase of 11 percent in 2017. With the outlook for China-US trade friction unclear, the WTO has lowered its forecast for global trade growth in 2019 from 3.7 percent to 2.6 percent.

(二)貿易戰沒有給美國帶來所謂的“再次偉大”
(II) The trade war has not “made America great again”

加征關稅措施不僅沒有推動美國經濟增長,反而帶來了嚴重傷害。
The tariff measures have not boosted American economic growth. Instead, they have done serious harm to the US economy.

一是提高美國企業生產成本。中美制造業相互依存度很高,許多美國制造商依賴中國的原材料和中間品,短期內難以找到合適的替代供應商,只能承擔加征關稅的成本。
First, the tariff measures have significantly increased production costs for US companies. The Chinese and US manufacturing sectors are highly dependent on each other. Many American manufacturers depend on China’s raw materials and intermediary goods. As it is hard for them to find good alternative suppliers in the short term, they will have to bear the costs of the tariff hikes.

二是抬升美國國內物價。進口中國物美價廉的消費品是美國通脹率長期保持低位的重要因素之一。加征關稅后,中國產品最終銷售價格提高,實際上美國消費者也承擔了關稅成本。美國全國零售商聯合會研究顯示,僅對中國家具征收25%關稅一項,就使美國消費者每年多付出46億美元的額外支出(注9)。
Second, the tariff measures lead to domestic price hikes in the US. The import of value-for-money consumer goods from China is a key factor behind the long-term low inflation in the US. After the additional tariffs were imposed, the final selling price of Chinese products increased, leaving American consumers effectively bearing some tariff costs. According to research by the US National Retail Federation, the 25 percent additional tariffs on furniture alone will cost the US consumer an additional US$4.6 billion per year.

三是影響美國經濟增長和民生。美國商會和榮鼎集團2019年3月聯合發布的報告顯示,受中美經貿摩擦影響,2019年及未來4年美國國內生產總值將可能每年減少640億至910億美元,約占美國國內生產總值總額的0.3%-0.5%。如美國對所有中國輸美商品征收25%關稅,未來10年美國國內生產總值將累計減少1萬億美元(注10)。美國智庫“貿易伙伴”(Trade Partnership)2019年2月發布的研究報告顯示,如美國對所有中國輸美商品加征25%的關稅,美國國內生產總值將減少1.01%,就業崗位將減少216萬個,一個四口之家每年支出將增加2294美元(注11)。
Third, the tariff measures have an impact on US economic growth and people’s livelihood. A joint report by the US Chamber of Commerce and the Rhodium Group in March 2019 showed that, under the impact of China-US economic and trade friction, US GDP in 2019 and the next four years could decrease by US$64-91 billion per year, about 0.3-0.5 percent of total US GDP. If the US imposes 25 percent tariffs on all Chinese goods exported to the US, US GDP will decrease by US$1 trillion in the next ten years cumulatively. According to a research report in February 2019 by Trade Partnership, an American think-tank, if the US imposes 25 percent additional tariffs on all imported Chinese goods, US GDP will decrease by 1.01 percent, with 2.16 million job losses and an additional annual burden of US$2,294 on a family of four.

四是阻礙美對華出口。美中貿易全國委員會2019年5月1日發布的《各州對華出口報告——2019》指出,2009年至2018年十年間,美國對華出口支撐了超過110萬個美國就業崗位,中國市場對美國經濟至關重要。在此十年中,美國48個州對華貨物出口實現累計增長,其中44個州實現兩位數增長,但在中美經貿摩擦加劇的2018年,美國僅有16個州對華貨物出口實現增長,34個州對華出口下降,其中24個州出現兩位數降幅,中西部農業州受損最為嚴重。受關稅措施影響的美國農產品對華出口同比減少33.1%,其中大豆降幅近50%,美國業界擔心從此失去培育了近40年的中國市場。
Fourth, the tariff measures lead to barriers to US exports to China. The 2019 State Export Report, published by the US-China Business Council on May 1, 2019, stated that in the ten years from 2009 to 2018, US exports to China supported over 1.1 million jobs. The Chinese market continues its importance to US economic growth. Forty-eight states of the US have increased their goods exports to China during the last decade – 44 of them by double digits – while in 2018, when economic and trade friction worsened, only 16 states increased their goods exports to China. Thirty-four states exported fewer goods to China, with 24 of them seeing a double-digit decrease. The Midwestern agricultural states were hit particularly hard. Under tariff measures, exports of American agricultural produce to China decreased by 33.1 percent year-on-year, including a 50 percent drop in soybeans. US businesses are worried that they might lose the Chinese market, which they have been cultivating for nearly 40 years.

(三)美國貿易霸凌行徑殃及全球
(III) US trade bullying harms the world

經濟全球化是不可阻擋的時代潮流,以鄰為壑的單邊主義、保護主義不得人心。美國采取的一系列貿易保護措施,違反世界貿易組織規則,損害多邊貿易體制,嚴重干擾全球產業鏈和供應鏈,損害市場信心,給全球經濟復蘇帶來嚴峻挑戰,給經濟全球化趨勢造成重大威脅。
Economic globalization is a firmly-established trend of the times. Beggar-thy-neighbor unilateralism and protectionism are unpopular. The trade protectionist measures taken by the US go against the WTO rules, damage the multilateral trading system, seriously disrupt global industrial chains and supply chains, undermine market confidence, and pose a serious challenge to global economic recovery and a major threat to the trend of economic globalization.

一是損害多邊貿易體制權威。美國依據國內法發起“201”“232”“301”等一系列單邊調查,并采取加征關稅措施,嚴重違反世界貿易組織最基本最核心的最惠國待遇、關稅約束等規則。這種單邊主義、保護主義行為不僅損害中國和其他成員利益,更損害了世界貿易組織及其爭端解決機制的權威性,使多邊貿易體制和國際貿易秩序面臨險境。
First, the US measures are undermining the authority of the multilateral trading system. The US has launched a series of unilateral investigations, including those under Sections 201, 232 and 301, and imposed tariff measures. These are a serious breach of the most fundamental and central WTO rules, including most-favored-nation treatment and tariff binding. Such unilateralist and protectionist actions have harmed the interests of China and other WTO members. More importantly, they have undermined the authority of the WTO and its dispute settlement system, and exposed the multilateral trading system and international trade order to peril.

二是威脅全球經濟增長。全球經濟尚未完全走出國際金融危機的陰影,美國政府升級經貿摩擦、提高關稅水平,相關國家不得不采取相應措施,導致全球經貿秩序紊亂,阻礙全球經濟復蘇,殃及各國企業發展和人民福祉,使全球經濟落入“衰退陷阱”。2019年1月,世界銀行發布《全球經濟展望》報告,將2019年全球經濟增長預期進一步降至2.9%,貿易關系持續緊張是主要下行風險之一(注12)。國際貨幣基金組織2019年4月發布的《世界經濟展望》報告,將2019年全球經濟增長預期從2018年預計的3.6%下調至3.3%,并表示經貿摩擦可能會進一步抑制全球經濟增長,繼續削弱本已疲弱的投資(注13)。
Second, the US measures threaten global economic growth. With the shadow of the international financial crisis still lingering over the global economy, the US government has escalated economic and trade friction and hiked additional tariffs, provoking corresponding measures by the countries involved. This disrupts global economic and trade order, dampens world economic recovery, and undermines the development of companies and the well-being of people in all countries, plunging the world economy into the “recession trap”. Global Economic Prospects released by the World Bank in January 2019 revised its forecast for global economic growth down further to 2.9 percent, citing continuous trade friction as a major downward risk. The International Monetary Fund also marked down its projection of world economic growth for 2019 to 3.3 percent from the 2018 estimate of 3.6 percent in its World Economic Outlook report published in April 2019, suggesting that economic and trade friction could further depress global economic growth and weaken already anemic investment.

三是擾亂全球產業鏈、供應鏈。中美都是全球產業鏈、供應鏈的重要環節。中國對美出口的最終產品中包含大量從他國進口的中間產品和零部件。美國對來自中國的進口產品加征關稅,受害的將是包括美國企業在內的與中國企業合作的眾多跨國公司。加征關稅措施導致供應鏈成本人為增加,影響供應鏈的穩定和安全。部分企業被迫調整供應鏈全球布局,全球資源無法實現最佳配置。
Third, the US moves disrupt global industrial and supply chains. China and the US are both key links in global industrial and supply chains. Given the large volume of intermediary goods and components from other countries in Chinese end-products exported to the US, US tariff hikes will hurt all the multinationals – not least those from the US – that work with Chinese companies. The tariff measures artificially drive up the costs of supply chains, and undermine their stability and security. As a result, some businesses are forced to readjust their global supply chains at the expense of optimal resource allocation.

可以預見,美國最新采取的對華關稅升級措施,不但解決不了問題,還將進一步損害各方利益,中國對此堅決反對。近期,美國政府以所謂國家安全的“莫須有”名義,連續對華為等多家中國企業實施“長臂管轄”制裁,中國同樣堅決反對。
It is foreseeable that the latest US tariff hikes on China, far from resolving issues, will only make things worse for all sides. China stands firm in opposition. Recently, the US administration imposed “long-arm jurisdiction” and sanctions against Huawei and other Chinese companies on the fabricated basis of national security, to which China is also firmly opposed.

二、美國在中美經貿磋商中出爾反爾、不講誠信
II. The US has backtracked on its commitments in the China-US economic and trade consultations

美國挑起經貿摩擦后,中國不得不采取應對措施,兩國貿易、投資關系受到影響。雙方從兩國人民福祉需要、從各自經濟發展需要出發,都認為有必要坐下來進行談判,通過磋商解決問題。自2018年2月經貿磋商啟動以來,已取得很大進展,兩國就大部分內容達成共識,但磋商也經歷了幾次波折,每次波折都源于美國的違背共識、出爾反爾、不講誠信。
In response to the economic and trade friction started by the US, China has been forced to take countermeasures, as bilateral trade and investment relations took a hit. For the well-being of the Chinese and American people and the economic development of the two countries, both sides deemed it necessary to come to the negotiating table to seek a solution through consultation. Since they were launched in February 2018, the economic and trade consultations have come a long way with the two sides agreeing on most parts of the deal. But the consultations have not been free of setbacks, each of them being the result of a US breach of consensus and commitments, and backtracking.

 
(一)第一次出爾反爾
(I) The first US backtracking

中國從一開始就主張,中美經貿摩擦應通過談判磋商解決。2018年2月初,美國政府提出希望中國派高級別代表團赴美進行經貿磋商。中國展示了極大誠意,作出積極努力,先后與美國舉行了數輪高級別經貿磋商,重點就貿易不平衡等問題深入交換意見,并就擴大自美國進口農產品、能源產品等初步達成共識,取得重要進展。但是,2018年3月22日,美國政府拋出所謂對華“301調查”報告,對中國提出“盜竊知識產權”“強制技術轉讓”等不實指責,并基于此宣稱將對從中國進口的價值500億美元商品加征25%關稅。
China had advocated resolving economic and trade friction through negotiation and consultation from the start. In early February 2018, the US government expressed the wish that China send a high-level delegation to the US to engage in economic and trade consultation. Demonstrating great goodwill and positive efforts, China held several rounds of high-level economic and trade consultations with the US, characterized by in-depth exchanges of views on trade imbalance among other major issues. The two sides made substantial progress as they reached preliminary consensus on expanding China’s imports of agricultural and energy products from the US. However, on March 22, 2018, the US government unveiled the so-called report on Section 301 investigation of China, falsely accusing China of “IP theft” and “forced technology transfer”, and subsequently announced an additional tariff of 25 percent on US$50 billion of Chinese exports to the US.

(二)第二次出爾反爾
(II) The second US backtracking

中國政府以兩國關系大局為重,再次派出工作團隊同美國進行了認真磋商。2018年5月19日,中美發布聯合聲明,達成了“雙方不打貿易戰”的共識,同意繼續保持高層溝通,積極尋求解決各自關注的經貿問題。美國公開表示,暫停推進對華加征關稅計劃。2018年5月29日,美國政府不顧國內工商界和廣大民眾的反對,在雙方發布聯合聲明僅10天后就推翻磋商共識,對中國的經濟體制、貿易政策橫加指責,宣布將繼續推進加征關稅計劃。自2018年7月初以來,美國分三次對500億美元中國輸美商品加征25%的關稅、對2000億美元中國輸美商品加征10%的關稅,并稱自2019年1月1日起將稅率提高至25%。美國還威脅要對剩余所有中國輸美商品加征關稅,導致兩國間的經貿摩擦快速升級。中國為捍衛國家尊嚴和人民利益,不得不作出必要反應,累計對1100億美元美國輸華商品加征關稅。
Taking a big-picture view of the bilateral relationship, the Chinese government sent a working team again to the US to engage in genuine consultations. On May 19, 2018, China and the US issued a joint statement, agreeing to refrain from fighting a trade war, to continue high-level communications, and to actively seek solutions to respective economic and trade concerns. The US publicly announced that it would suspend the plan for additional tariffs on Chinese goods. On May 29, 2018, despite the opposition of its domestic business community and the general public, the US administration tore up the consensus just ten days after the joint statement, gratuitously criticizing China’s economic system and trade policy, while announcing the resumption of the tariff program. Starting from early July 2018, in three steps, the US imposed additional tariffs of 25 percent on Chinese exports worth US$50 billion, and additional tariffs of 10 percent on US$200 billion of Chinese exports, which, according to the US, would be raised to 25 percent on January 1, 2019. In addition, the US threatened further tariffs on all remaining Chinese exports, leading to quick escalation of the economic and trade friction between the two countries. In defense of its national dignity and its people’s interests, China had to respond in kind and raised tariffs on imports worth US$110 billion from the US.

(三)第三次出爾反爾
(III) The third US backtracking

2018年11月1日,美國總統特朗普同習近平主席通電話,并提議舉行兩國元首會晤。12月1日,中美兩國元首在阿根廷二十國集團領導人峰會期間舉行會晤,就雙邊經貿問題達成重要共識,同意停止相互加征新的關稅,在90天內加緊開展磋商,朝著取消所有加征關稅的方向努力。此后90天里,中美工作團隊在北京和華盛頓舉行3輪高級別磋商,就中美經貿協議的原則內容達成許多初步共識。2019年2月25日,美方宣布推遲原定的3月1日起對價值2000億美元中國輸美商品提高關稅的期限。3月底至4月底,兩國工作團隊又進行3輪高級別磋商,取得實質性進展。經過多輪磋商,兩國已就大部分問題達成一致。針對遺留問題,中國政府提出,雙方要互諒互讓,共同尋找解決分歧的辦法。
On November 1, 2018, US President Donald Trump had a telephone conversation with Chinese President Xi Jinping and proposed a summit meeting. On December 1 the two presidents had a meeting on the margins of the G20 Summit in Argentina. In accordance with their important consensus on economic and trade issues, the two sides agreed to halt new additional tariffs for 90 days to allow for intensive talks geared toward the full elimination of all additional tariffs. In the ensuing 90 days, the working teams of China and the US held three rounds of high-level consultations in Beijing and Washington D.C., reaching preliminary consensus on many matters of principle for the China-US economic and trade deal. On February 25, 2019, the US announced the postponement of the additional tariffs scheduled for March 1 on US$200 billion of Chinese exports to the US. From late March to early April, the working teams of the two countries held another three rounds of high-level consultations and made substantial progress. Following numerous rounds of consultations, the two countries had agreed on most of the issues. Regarding the remaining issues, the Chinese government urged mutual understanding and compromise for solutions to be found.

然而,美國政府得寸進尺,采取霸凌主義態度和極限施壓手段,堅持不合理的高要價,堅持不取消經貿摩擦以來加征的全部關稅,堅持在協議中寫入涉及中國主權事務的強制性要求,導致雙方遲遲未能彌合剩余分歧。2019年5月6日,美國不負責任地指責中國立場“倒退”,企圖將談判迄未完成的責任歸咎于中國,并不顧中國堅決反對,自5月10日起將2000億美元中國輸美商品加征關稅稅率由10%提高至25%,導致中美經貿磋商嚴重受挫。5月13日,美國宣布啟動對剩余約3000億美元中國輸美商品加征關稅的程序。上述舉動與中美元首通過磋商化解摩擦的共識相悖,與兩國和世界各國人民的期待相悖,給雙邊經貿磋商和世界經濟增長前景蒙上了陰影。為捍衛自身利益,中國不得不采取加征關稅的措施予以應對。
But the more the US government is offered, the more it wants. Resorting to intimidation and coercion, it persisted with exorbitant demands, maintained the additional tariffs imposed since the friction began, and insisted on including mandatory requirements concerning China’s sovereign affairs in the deal, which only served to delay the resolution of remaining differences. On May 6, 2019, the US irresponsibly accused China of backtracking on its position to shift the blame for the inconclusive talks onto China. Despite China’s fierce opposition, the US raised the additional tariffs on US$200 billion of Chinese exports to the US from 10 percent to 25 percent, which represented a serious setback to the economic and trade consultations. On May 13 the US announced that it had launched procedures to slap additional tariffs on remaining Chinese goods, which are worth around US$300 billion. These acts contradicted the agreement reached by the two presidents to ease friction through consultation – and the expectations of people around the world – casting a shadow over the bilateral economic and trade consultations and world economic growth. In defense of its own interests, China had to take tariff measures in response.

(四)中美經貿磋商嚴重受挫,責任完全在美國政府
(IV) The US government should bear the sole and entire responsibility for this severe setback to the China-US economic and trade consultations

美國政府指責中國在磋商中“開倒車”完全是無稽之談。在雙方磋商仍在進行的過程中,就文本內容及相關表述提出修改建議、做出調整,這是貿易談判的通常做法,美國政府在過去十余輪談判中曾不斷調整相關訴求,隨意指責中方“倒退”是不負責任的。歷史經驗證明,試圖通過潑臟水、拆臺、極限施壓等手段達成協議,只會破壞雙方合作關系,錯失歷史機遇。
The US government accusation of Chinese backtracking is totally groundless. It is common practice for both sides to make new proposals for adjustments to the text and language in ongoing consultations. In the previous more than ten rounds of negotiations, the US administration kept changing its demands. It is reckless to accuse China of “backtracking” while the talks are still under way. Historical experience has proved that any attempt to force a deal through tactics such as smears, undermining and maximum pressure will only spoil the cooperative relationship. Historic opportunities will be missed.

君子之國,先禮后兵。美國提出新的關稅威脅后,國際社會普遍擔憂中國可能取消赴美磋商計劃,關注中美經貿磋商何去何從。中國從維護中美經貿關系的大局出發,保持理性、克制的態度,按照雙方此前約定,于2019年5月9日至10日派出高級別代表團赴美進行第十一輪經貿磋商,展示與美國通過對話解決經貿分歧的最大誠意和負責任態度。中美雙方進行了坦誠、建設性的交流,同意努力管控分歧,繼續推進磋商。中國對美國單邊加征關稅的做法表達強烈反對,闡明嚴正立場,表示將不得不采取必要措施予以回擊。中國再次強調,經貿協議必須是平等、互利的,在涉及中國核心利益的重大原則問題上決不會讓步。雙方達成協議的前提是美國取消全部加征關稅,采購要符合實際,同時確保協議文本平衡,符合雙方共同利益。
A civilized country turns to forceful measures only when gentler approaches have failed. After the US issued the new tariff threat, the international community was widely concerned that China might cancel the consultation visit to the US. It kept a close watch on the future direction of the China-US trade negotiations. Bearing in mind the broader interests of trade and economic relations between the two countries, China remained cool-headed, exercised restraint, and sent a senior delegation to the US, as agreed, for the 11th round of economic and trade consultation from May 9 to 10. In doing so, China demonstrated the greatest sincerity and a strong sense of responsibility for resolving trade disputes through dialogue. In the following candid and constructive discussions, the two sides agreed to manage differences and continue consultations. China expressed strong opposition to the unilateral tariff increase by the US and stated its firm position that it would have to take necessary countermeasures. China emphasized once again that trade deals must be based on equality and mutual benefit. China will never compromise on major principles concerning China’s core interests. One prerequisite for a trade deal is that the US should remove all additional tariffs imposed on Chinese exports and China’s purchase of US goods should be realistic while ensuring that a proper balance in the text of the agreement is achieved to serve the common interests of both sides.

三、中國始終堅持平等、互利、誠信的磋商立場
III. China is committed to credible consultations based on equality and mutual benefit

中國政府始終認為,以貿易戰相威脅,不斷加征關稅的做法無益于經貿問題的解決。中美應秉持相互尊重、平等互利的精神,本著善意和誠信,通過磋商解決問題,縮小分歧,擴大共同利益,共同維護全球經濟穩定和發展。
The Chinese government rejects the idea that threats of a trade war and continuous tariff hikes can ever help resolve trade and economic issues. Guided by a spirit of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, the two countries should push forward consultations based on good faith and credibility in a bid to address issues, narrow differences, expand common interests, and jointly safeguard global economic stability and development.

(一)磋商要相互尊重、平等互利
(I) Consultations should be based on mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit

作為世界上最大的兩個經濟體和貿易大國,中美經貿合作中存在一些分歧是正常的,關鍵是如何增進互信、促進合作、管控分歧。中國從維護兩國共同利益和世界貿易秩序大局出發,堅持通過對話協商解決問題,以最大的耐心和誠意回應美國提出的關切,以求同存異的態度妥善處理分歧,克服各種困難,提出務實解決方案,為推動雙邊經貿磋商作出艱苦努力。磋商過程中,中國始終秉持相互尊重、平等互利的原則,致力于推動達成雙方都能接受的協議。
It is only natural for China and the US, the two largest economies and trading nations in the world, to experience some differences over trade and economic cooperation. What truly matters is how to enhance mutual trust, promote cooperation and manage differences. For the good of the common interests of the two countries and global trade order, and in a strenuous effort to push forward the economic and trade consultations, China remains committed to resolving issues through dialogue and consultation, responding to US concerns with the greatest patience and sincerity, properly handling differences while seeking common ground, and overcoming obstacles to practical solutions. During the consultations, in accordance with the principle of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, China’s only intention is to reach a mutually acceptable deal.

相互尊重,就是要尊重對方社會制度、經濟體制、發展道路和權利,尊重彼此核心利益和重大關切,不挑戰“底線”,不逾越“紅線”,不能以犧牲一方的發展權為代價,更不能損害一國的主權。平等互利,就是雙方磋商的地位是平等的,磋商成果是互利的,最終達成的協議是雙贏的。如果一方強壓另一方進行談判,或者談判結果僅讓單方得利,這樣的談判不會取得成功。
Mutual respect means that each side should respect the other’s social institutions, economic system, development path and rights, core interests, and major concerns. It also means that one side should not cross the other’s “red lines”. The right to development cannot be sacrificed, still the less can sovereignty be undermined. As regards equality and mutual benefit, we must ensure that the two sides in the consultations operate on an equal footing, that results are mutually beneficial, and that any final agreement is a win-win one. Negotiations will get nowhere if one side tries to coerce the other or if only one party will benefit from the outcomes.

(二)磋商要相向而行、誠信為本
(II) Consultation involves working toward the same goal in good faith

磋商需要雙方相互理解和共同努力。磋商是當事的相關方通過討論,對面臨的問題尋求共識或者相互妥協的過程。磋商期間的變量很多。各方從自身利益出發,在不同階段對各種變化做出不同反應,這是磋商的常態。中國政府認為,經貿磋商是尋求解決問題的有效途徑。各方只有在磋商過程中都抱著善意的態度,充分理解對方立場,才能為磋商獲得成功創造良好條件。否則,就無法形成達成長期有效協議的基礎,難以達成可持續、可執行的協議。
Consultation calls for mutual understanding and genuine effort from both sides. Consultation is a process where the parties concerned seek consensus or make compromise through discussion. Many factors are at play in consultation. It is perfectly normal during consultations for the parties to react differently to various changes at different stages based on their own interests. The Chinese government believes that economic and trade consultation is an effective way to solve issues. None other than engagement with goodwill and a full understanding of the other’s position can contribute to success. Otherwise, it will be hard to reach a sustainable and enforceable deal as the parties will not find the ground for a long-term and effective agreement.

誠信是磋商的基礎。中國政府始終以誠信為本,抱著極大的誠意與美國政府進行磋商。中國高度重視美國關切,努力尋找化解雙方分歧的有效途徑和辦法。雙方已舉行的11輪高級別經貿磋商取得重大進展,這些磋商成果既符合中國利益,也符合美國利益,是雙方共同努力、相向而行的結果。中國在磋商中講信用重承諾,并多次強調,如雙方達成協議,中國對所作的承諾一定會認真、切實履行。
Good faith is the foundation of consultation. The Chinese government has engaged in these consultations with the US with the utmost credibility and the greatest sincerity. Attaching great importance to US concerns, China has worked hard to look for effective paths and find ways to address differences. The 11 rounds of high-level consultations have made significant progress. The outcomes of the consultations have not only served the interests of China, but also those of the US, as a result of both sides’ efforts to pull in the same direction. China has kept its word during the consultations. China has emphasized repeatedly that if a trade agreement is reached, it will honor its commitments sincerely and faithfully.

(三)中國在原則問題上決不讓步
(III) China will not give ground on issues of principle

任何國家都有自己的原則。磋商中,一國的主權和尊嚴必須得到尊重,雙方達成的協議應是平等互利的。對于重大原則問題,中國決不退讓。中美雙方都應看到并承認國家發展的差異性、階段性,尊重對方發展道路和基本制度。既不能指望通過一個協議解決所有的問題,也需要確保協議同時滿足雙方的需求,實現協議的平衡性。
Every country has its own matters of principle. During consultations, a country’s sovereignty and dignity must be respected, and any agreement reached by the two sides must be based on equality and mutual benefit. On major issues of principle, China will not back down. Both China and the US should see and recognize their countries’ differences in national development and in stage of development, and respect each other’s development path and basic institutions. While no one expects to resolve all issues through one single agreement, it is necessary to ensure that any agreement will satisfy the needs of both sides and achieve a balance.

美國近期宣布提高對華加征關稅,不利于解決雙邊經貿問題,中國對此強烈反對,不得不作出反應,維護自身合法權益。中國的立場和態度是一貫的、明確的,中國希望通過對話而不是關稅措施解決問題。為了中國人民的利益,為了美國人民的利益,為了全世界人民的利益,中國會理性對待,但是中國不會畏懼任何壓力,也做好準備迎接任何挑戰。談,大門敞開;打,奉陪到底。
The recent US move to increase tariffs on Chinese exports does not help to solve bilateral trade issues. China strongly opposes this and has to respond to safeguard its lawful rights and interests. China has been consistent and clear on its position, that it hopes to resolve issues through dialogue rather than tariff measures. China will act rationally in the interests of the Chinese people, the American people, and all other peoples around the world. However, China will not bow under pressure and will rise to any challenge coming its way. China is open to negotiation, but will also fight to the end if needed.

(四)任何挑戰都擋不住中國前進的步伐
(IV) No challenge will hold back China’s development

中國的發展不會一帆風順,必然會有艱難險阻甚至驚濤駭浪。面對各種風險和挑戰,中國有信心迎難而上,化危為機,開拓一片新天地。
China’s development may not be all smooth sailing. Difficulties or even perils are inevitable. Whatever the future might bring, China is confident of meeting challenges head on, turning risks into opportunities, and opening new chapters.

無論形勢如何發展變化,中國都堅持做好自己的事情。通過改革開放發展壯大自己,是應對經貿摩擦的根本之道。中國國內市場需求巨大,供給側結構性改革的推進將帶來產品和企業競爭力的全面提升,財政和貨幣政策有充分空間,中國能保持經濟持續健康發展的良好態勢,經濟前景非常樂觀。
China remains committed to its own cause no matter how the external environment changes. The fundamental solution to economic and trade tensions is to grow stronger through reform and opening up. With the enormous demand from the domestic market, deeper supply-side structural reform will comprehensively enhance the competitiveness of Chinese products and companies. We still have sufficient room for fiscal and monetary policy maneuvers. China can maintain sound momentum for sustainable and healthy economic development, and its economic prospects are bright.

中國將繼續深化改革開放,中國的大門不會關上,只會越開越大。習近平主席在第二屆“一帶一路”國際合作高峰論壇開幕式主旨演講中宣布,中國將采取一系列重大改革開放舉措,加強制度性、結構性安排,促進更高水平對外開放,包括更廣領域擴大外資市場準入、更大力度加強知識產權保護國際合作、更大規模增加商品和服務進口、更加有效實施國際宏觀經濟政策協調、更加重視對外開放政策貫徹落實。一個更加開放的中國,將同世界形成更加良性的互動,帶來更加進步和繁榮的中國和世界。
China will continue to deepen reform and opening up. China’s door will not be closed; it will only open even wider. President Xi Jinping announced in his keynote speech at the opening ceremony of the Second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation that China would adopt a number of major reform and opening-up measures, strengthen institutional and structural arrangements, and promote opening up at a higher level. Measures to be taken include expanding market access for foreign investment in broader areas, strengthening international cooperation on intellectual property protection, increasing imports of goods and services, implementing more effective international coordination on macro-economic policies, and putting more focus on the implementation of opening-up policies. A more open China will have more positive interactions with the world, which in turn will advance the development and prosperity of both China and the world.

結束語
Conclusion

合作是中美兩國唯一正確選擇,共贏才能通向更好的未來。在中美經貿磋商總的方向上,中國不是向后看,而是向前看。雙方在經貿領域的分歧和摩擦,最終需要通過對話和磋商來解決。中美達成一個互利雙贏的協議,符合中美兩國利益,順應世界各國期待。希望美國同中國相向而行,本著相互尊重、平等互利的精神,管控經貿分歧,加強經貿合作,共同推進以協調、合作、穩定為基調的中美關系,增進兩國和世界人民福祉。
Cooperation is the only correct choice for China and the US and win-win is the only path to a better future. As to where the China-US economic and trade consultations are heading, China is looking forward, not backward. Disputes and conflicts on the trade and economic front, at the end of the day, need to be solved through dialogue and consultation. Striking a mutually beneficial and win-win agreement serves the interests of China and the US and meets the expectations of the world. It is hoped that the US can pull in the same direction with China and, in a spirit of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, manage economic and trade differences, strengthen trade and economic cooperation, and jointly advance China-US relations based on coordination, cooperation and stability for the well-being of both nations and the world.

(注1)2018年2月,美國商會全球創新政策中心發布的《2018年國際知識產權指數報告》稱,2018年,中國以19.08分位居50個經濟體的第25位,較2017年上升2位,http://www.theglobalipcenter.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/GIPC_IP_Index_2018.pdf。

(注2)2018年1月18日,中國國家知識產權局2017年主要工作統計數據及有關情況新聞發布會,http://www.sipo.gov.cn/twzb/gjzscqj2017nzygztjsjjygqkxwfbk/。

(注3)美中貿易全國委員會(USCBC)網站:2019 State Export Report,https://www.uschina.org/reports/2019-state-export-report,2019年5月1日。

(注4)中國海關總署網站:http://www.customs.gov.cn/customs/302249/302274/302275/2418393/index.html,2019年5月8日。

(注5)中國海關總署網站:http://www.customs.gov.cn/customs/302249/302274/302275/2418393/index.html,2019年5月8日。

(注6)中國商務部數據。

(注7)中國商務部網站:2018年1-12月全國吸收外商直接投資快訊,http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/tongjiziliao/v/201901/20190102832209.shtml,2019年1月15日。

(注8)世界貿易組織(WTO)網站:WTO Trade forecasts:Press conference,https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/spra_e/spra255_e.htm,2019年4月2日。

(注9)美國全國零售商聯合會網站:NRF Warns USTR Tariffs Would Cost Americans Billions,Releases New Study on Consumer Impact,https://nrf.com/media-center/press-releases/nrf-warns-ustr-tariffs-would-cost-americans-billions-releases-new-study,2018年8月22日。

(注10)榮鼎集團網站:Assessing the Costs of Tariffs on the US ICT Industry:Modeling US China Tariffs,https://rhg.com/research/assessing-the-costs-of-tariffs-on-the-us-ict-industry,2019年3月15日。

(注11)貿易伙伴網站:Estimated Impacts of Tariffs on the U.S. Economy and Workers(2019),https://tradepartnership.com/reports/estimated-impacts-of-tariffs-on-the-u-s-economy-and-workers-2019,2019年2月5日。

(注12)世界銀行網站:Global Economic Prospects,https://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/global-economic-prospects,2019年1月8日。

(注13)國際貨幣基金組織網站:World Economic Outlook,https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2019/03/28/world-economic-outlook-april-2019,2019年4月2日。

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